Bergengren, Erik. Alfred Nobel. New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons LTD, 1960.
This book was an in-depth biography of Nobel's life. This resource described Nobel's ancestors, and even his business strategies. It also provided pictures, charts of where Nobel had factories, graphs of dynamite production, and geographical distributions of his wealth along with some of his writings which included an autobiographical poem of 419 lines.

Fant, Kenne.  Alfred Nobel.  New York:  Arcade, 1991.
This biography included many primary resources including reprints of diagrams, pictures, documents and charts. It also provided me translated copies of direct correspondence between Nobel and his brother Robert, Ragnar Sohlman, executor of his will and chief engineer, as well as Bertha von Suttner, his close-friend and peace activist, and Sophie Hess, his mistress. It helped me better my knowledge about Nobel as a scientist, an inventor, and an individual.

 Halasz, Nicholas. Nobel:  A Biography of Alfred Nobel.  New York, NY:  The Orion Press, 1959.
This source provided correspondence including letters. It also had some of Nobel's poetry and other literary writings, including excerpts from a play he wrote. It also described how Nobel felt about moral issues involving inventing dynamite which he wrote about in letters, which helped me write my report.

 Schuck, H., R. Sohlman, A. Osterling, C.G. Bernhard, A. Westgren, M. Siegbahn, K. Siegbahn, A. Schou, and N.K. Stahle. Nobel: The Man & His Prizes. New York, NY: American Elsevier Company, Inc, 1972.
This book included a chapter by Ragnar Sohlman, Nobel's personal assistant, chief engineer, and the executor of his will, specifically detailing how he started the Nobel Foundation and settled Nobel's estate. It also included analyses of several different prizes by experts. It helped me especially understand how much resistance there was to the creation of the Nobel Prizes.

Von Suttner, Bertha. Memoirs of Bertha von Suttner. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1910.
This book helped me greatly in my research. It described Bertha von Suttner's viewpoint of Alfred Nobel, their meetings, as well as providing letters, one of which I included in my report. Her memoirs describe her passion as a vocal peace activist, who corresponded with Alfred Nobel. The letters between them show the relationship they had and her influence that many people believe was one of the key factors in Nobel creating the prizes.


 Nobel, Alfred. Improved Explosive Compound. Julius Bandmann, assignee. Patent 78,317. 1868.
This was the United States patent given to Alfred Nobel for dynamite. It was helpful to me because it showed he had the business sense to apply for patents in other countries.

Nobel, Alfred. Last Will and Testament. 1895.
This is the third and final will of Alfred Nobel. I used quotes from this document to show what his wishes were and how he intended his wealth to be used.


 Alfred Nobel - Father of Explosives. 1890. History of Blasting and Explosives
This is an image of Alfred Nobel sitting in a chair. I used it in my timeline. I used this image because it matched the period of the timeline that I obtained from

 O' Brien, Hal. Alfred Nobel's Death Mask. 2 Aug. 2001.
I used this, a picture of the death mask of Alfred Nobel, in my timeline. When I saw this picture, I believed it gave a symbolic portrayal of Alfred Nobel's death.

 Alfred Nobel's Laboratory in Sevran. The Nobel Collection, The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden.
This is an image of a dynamite lab belonging to Alfred Nobel, which was used in my timeline section. In that section of the timeline, it listed events that happened in factories, including inventions and the death of Nobel's brother.

Alfred Nobel's Patent on the Blasting Cap. Swedish National Archives.
I used this image, which was Alfred Nobel's patent for the blasting cap, in my timeline. When trying to find images for my timeline, I found the website for the Swedish National Archives and the patent on the blasting cap.

 Alfred Nobel's Traveling Bag.  The Nobel Collection, The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden.
This is an image of Alfred Nobel's traveling bag, used in my analysis section. This image showed what types of things Alfred Nobel carried with him when he traveled and I thought it showed his dedication.

 Alfred Nobel's Will.  The Nobel Collection, The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden.
This was a picture of Alfred Nobel's will. It was used in my analysis section. The will was an integral part of Alfred Nobel's legacy.

 Bertha von Suttner.  The Nobel Collection, The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden.
I used this photograph in my Historical Context section. This is a photo of Bertha von Suttner, Alfred Nobel's close friend and who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905, becoming the first woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

Harpers Weekly, The Hellenic Nobel Collection,  Museum of the Hellenic Nobel Collection, Athens, Greece.
This was an image of an engraving of a violent explosion, in which many people were killed. I used this image in my analysis to show how dangerous working with nitroglycerin could be.

 Immanuel Nobel. The Nobel Collection, The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden.
This is an image of Alfred Nobel's father, Immanuel Nobel. I used it in my timeline. Immanuel Nobel was a primary influence in his son's life and career.

 Lobotomy Operation. PBS.
This was a picture of Egas Moniz performing a lobotomy, used in the Perspectives section because Egas Moniz is one of the controversial persons awarded a Nobel Prize.

 Men Loosening granite using hammers, steel rods and dynamite.  Minnesota Historical Society, St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota.
In this photo, miners are using dynamite to loosen huge slabs of rock. The picture is used in my Historical Context section. I used it because it portrayed how dynamite was used in mining.

 Mother Teresa: Angel of Mercy. CNN Interactive, Cable News Network, Inc.
This is a photograph of Mother Teresa, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979, that was used in my Significance in History to give an example of a Nobel Peace Prize Laureate.

 Osterman, Emil. Alfred Nobel. 1915. The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden.
This picture was used in my Thesis section.

 Palace Hotel, Built 1874 - Demolished by Dynamite May 12, 1906. 12 May 1906. California Historical Society,   San Francisco, CA.
This is an image of a building being demolished by dynamite, used in the Significance in History section. I thought that this image showed the use of dynamite in destruction.

 Suez Canal Under Construction. Lessons from History.
I used this picture in the Perspectives section. It was an image of the Suez Canal being constructed.


"Alfred Nobel." The Nobel Peace Prize. The Norwegian Nobel Institute. 21 Nov. 2008
This is the official website of the museum I visited in Norway this summer. This website was very important to my research. It also included the whole text of his will and detailed information about his research and his fortune. It had many primary resources, like pictures of Nobel and dynamite.

"Alfred Nobel - The Man Behind The Nobel Prize." 16 Oct. 2008
This was a very valuable source. It had primary resources including pictures of his will. I was also able to email this site and they quickly responded with answers to questions I had. It also had information on many different prize winners, as well as several pictures I used in my project.

"Archive Documents after Alfred Nobel in the National Archives." Swedish Archives. 21 Nov. 2008 <>
This is the website for the Swedish National Archives. It had several images, from patents to letters, and information about Alfred Nobel's Swedish patent on the blasting cap.

 "The Collection." Museum of the Hellenic Nobel Collection. 21 Nov. 2008
This was an amazingly useful website. It provided many great pictures of handwritten letters to and from Nobel, legal documents including patents, legal decrees concerning the production of dynamite, and maps. It also had newspapers, advertisements, academic papers, diagrams, and rare Nobel medals. Some of these I used directly within my website, whereas other showed me the vastness of his influence.

 "United States Patent Office." United States Patent and Trademark Office. 23 Nov. 2008
This webpage had an image of the United States patent given to Alfred Nobel for dynamite.

Secondary Resources


 Dolan, John E., and Stanley S. Langer. Explosives in the Service of Man. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1997.
This resource provided a thorough description of the Proceedings of a Conference held in Tribute to Alfred Nobel on the 10th and 11th of December 1996. This was a symposium in honor of the 100th anniversary of Nobel's death. The lectures by experts in the field of the science of explosives explained its use in mining and civil engineering, both historically and in present day. This helped me understand the uses of dynamite.

 Feldman, Burton. The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy and Prestige. Grand Rapids: Arcade, Incorporated, 2000.
This book provided information about the life of Alfred Nobel. It contained material about the prizes in Literature, Science, Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Peace, and Economics. It also included a chronology of prize winners, values of prizes, prizes by nation and women laureates.

 Skagegard, Lars-Ake. The Remarkable Story of Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prize. Trans. George Varcoe. New York: Coronet Books, 1994.
This book includes a program of the Nobel Prize ceremony for 1992 in addition to the menu of the subsequent banquet. It also gave me a list and pictures of prize winners. It helped me understand more about the prize winners themselves.

Snil, Vaclav. Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1967-1914 and Their Lasting Impact. Oxford: University Press, 2005.
This book provided information about new materials that helped create the Twentieth century. The chapter on explosives provided a quote, as well as the chemical composition of dynamite and positive and negative aspect of how dynamite was used.


Petterson, Jonna. "SV: Information about Alfred Nobel." E-mail to the author. 14 Nov. 2008.
This e-mail helped me in many ways. Mrs. Petterson, Public Relations Officer and Information Specialist from the Nobel Foundation, told me where to go to have my questions answered, along with giving me permission to use pictures on their website in my project.

Petterson, Jonna. "SV: SV: Information about Alfred Nobel." E-mail to the author. 14 Jan. 2009.
In this e-mail, Mrs. Petterson answered my question of Alfred Nobel's relationship with Asciano Sobrero, inventor of nitroglycerin. Also she helped me with Nobel's influence on future philanthropists.

Petterson, Jonna. "SV: SV: SV: Information about Alfred Nobel." E-mail to the author. 26 Feb. 2009.
This e-mail helped me better my understanding of the money given to laureates of the Nobel Prize and the restrictions and the conditions placed on them.


 Marshall, Eliot. "For Winners, a New Life of Opportunity - and Perils." Science 294 (2001): 293-95.
This article brought valuable insight into the pros and cons of winning the Nobel Prize. It was highly valuable when writing my Perspectives section.

 Reif, Wanda. "100 Years of Alfred Nobel's Legacy." The Lancet 358 (2001): 1280.
This journal was informative because it explained the prize itself. It also included information about prizewinners.

 Stone, Richard. "At 100, Alfred Nobel's Legacy Retains Its Luster." Science 294 (2001) 288-91.
This journal had specific information. It contained details about the prize's rise to fame, why some major contributions and discoveries have not received prizes, life after receiving a prize, and a probable reason why he left the massive sum of money to make the Nobel Prizes.



"Danza Espanola" By Pau Casals. MP3.
I used this song in my video on my homepage. I chose this song because it fit the video and the emotions I was trying to portray.

"Modern Marvels - Dynamite" Modern Marvels. The History Channel - A&E Television Networks. 1999.
This video provided fantastic information about dynamite, the Nobel Prizes, gunpowder and Alfred Nobel. It also provided clips of explosions that I used for my title page video. This video also provided large amounts of primary resources, like pictures of Nobel, his family, and his laboratory. There were also video on the building of the Panama Canal and the Trans-Continental Railroad.


 "Alfred Nobel (1833-1896)." - The Depressed Explosive." Flinn Scientific INC. 10 Dec
2008 <>
This website provided comprehensive information about Alfred Nobel's life. It also gave detail about how Nobel invented dynamite and blasting gel.

 "Alfred Nobel (1833-1896)." Newsfinder. 21 Nob. 2008
This source provided information about Immanuel Nobel's inventions and companies, as well as other information about Alfred's early childhood.

 "Alfred Nobel." Lucidcafé. 16 Oct. 2008 <>.
This website provided only a brief summary of Alfred's life. However, it also gave a very good quote and a picture.

"Alfred Nobel." Nordic Way. 21 Nov. 2008
This page provided valuable information on the controversy left by Alfred Nobel's will. Due to the enormity of his fortune, many people tried to steal or claim it. Additionally, it gave information about the life and industry of Nobel.

 "Alfred Nobel." Peep: Physics & Ethics Education Project. University of Bristol; Institute of Physics. 19 Nov. 2008
This website gave brief information about Nobel's life. This website also produced two valuable quotes. One quote was by Alfred Nobel, while the other was by Albert Einstein. It also mentioned the problem of being a scientist and managing social responsibility.

 Altman, Lawrence K. "Alfred Nobel and the Prize That Almost Didn't Happen." The New York Times. 26 Sept. 2006. 21 Nov. 2008
This website had beneficial information. There was important details about Nobel's life that was not included in most other resources.

 Bellis, Mary. "History of Dynamite." 1 Oct. 2008
This website provided information about the inventions of Nobel. It also gave me a good picture of Nobel.

 "Encyclopedia>19th Century." 10 Dec. 2008
This website provided detail about important events and people throughout the 19th century that was valuable in writing the historical context section.

 Kurtus, Ron. "Alfred Nobel." School for Champions. 8 Dec. 2001. 22 Oct. 2008
This website provided good information on Nobel. It divided by events that happened in different periods of his life.

"Military Explosives." Aragon. 23 Nov.2008
This webpage helped me in the perspectives page with the uses of dynamite in war.

 "October: Alfred Nobel Receives his first patent." RSC: Advancing the Chemical Sciences. Royal Society of Chemistry. 18 Nov. 2008
This website gave a quick summary of dates and information.  It was good for quickly finding dates and statistics about his first patent for preparing nitroglycerine.

 "The Peace Prize...Norway's Only Nobel." Norway: The Official Site in the United States. 21 Sept 2008
This website provided a good description of the Peace Prize, including why Norway chooses the Peace Prize Laureate, opposed to Sweden. It also describes the selection process.

 Ringertz,Nils. "Alfred Nobel _ His Life and Work." 16 Oct. 2008
This website was very useful in my research. It provided information about Nobel, pictures, quotes and primary source documents, like the actual will of Alfred Nobel.

 Spartacus Educational. 21 Oct.2008
This website only provided a brief description of Nobel's life.

 Suddath, Claire. "The Nobel Prize." Time. 5 Oct.2008. 21 Nov. 2008
This page provided valuable information about Nobel's early life. It also gave me information about prizewinners.

 "Was Nobel Noble? Meet the man." Learning to Give. The League. 10 Dec. 2008
In this site, there was helpful information specifically about the Nobel Peace Prize and why Nobel might have given the responsibility of awarding the peace prize to the Norwegians.

 "Who was Alfred Nobel?" The Kids Times. 10 Dec. 2008
In this website there was a nice summary of Alfred Nobel's life, in addition to the applications of dynamite in building.